Abstract Objective The initiation of teen driving, which occurs between ages 15 and 17, has generally been studied primarily in relation to crash injury reduction. However, it may be the most important period influencing development between puberty and emerging adulthood because, once the teens are driving on their own or riding with other teens, parental control over social behavior is greatly reduced and opportunities for risk taking are substantially increased. The noncrash risks and benefits of licensing during this critical transition period is the subject of this paper. In this paper, we review recent studies on the effect of driving on non-traffic-related behaviors of teen drivers. Our analysis suggests that there are two environments that affect behavior and development: Before driving age, the home environment influences are omnipresent in the life of the developing child.
Licensing Teenagers: Nontraffic Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Driving Status
Sleepy teenage brains need school to start later in the morning
Transport modes[ edit ] General public transport[ edit ] Using the general-purpose public transport is the most common means of student transport, in some countries. Sometimes the parents or the students get reimbursed when they buy public transport tickets. School bus by country Student transport can use specially designed school buses. Many districts in Canada and the United States use specially built and equipped school buses, painted school bus yellow and equipped with various forms of warning and safety devices specific to them.
Messenger Millions of high schoolers are fighting with their alarm clocks as they start another academic year. As they struggle to get up early, parents battle to get them out of bed and off to school — a stressful way for everyone involved to start the day. Are teenagers just being lazy when they have to be dragged out of bed in the morning?